Mashhad is one of the greatest cities if Iran and is the center of the wide province of Khorasan Razavi. Mashahd today, is a small part of a city called Noghan which has 8000 years history according to the archaeologists and based on the works found around Kashaf River. It is believed that Jamshid from Kianian dynasty, built Tous and handed it over to his successor Keikhosro. In 808 ad Aaron Al Rashid, the great caliph of Abbasi attacked Mavara Al Nahr from Khorasan. He got seek, however, on the way and soon after died and was buried in the villageof Sanabad from Noghan subsidiaries.
Afterwards, his son, Mamoon, build current Mashhad. The city of Mashhad is a metropolis city located in the northeast of Iran and is the center of Khorasan Razavi province. According to the public Census, this city is the second-most populous cityafter Tehran, with 2,410,800. This county has border with Republic of Turkmenistan in the north and with Afghanistan in the east. Mashhad has a dry and cold climate. Maximum temperature has been reported +35° and minimum temperature is -15 degrees in winter, the average annual precipitation is 260 mm. Mashhad in located in a very beautiful and productive plain named Tous or Mashhad plain and Kashaf River passes from 5 km north of the city.
Natural and Geographical Location
In the year of 823 ad the nucleus of the modern city of Mashhad was formed. In the thirteenth century many people turned to this city due to the destruction of city of Tous.Tous was first the resident place for non-Aryan tribes. The city was among those that was devastatingly attacked by Mongol invasion and, like other cities of Khorasan Razavi turned to a ruin. From the second half of the fifteenth century Toushas been regarded as one of the subsidiaries of Mashhad. Today not much is left from the old Tous and new Tous is considered of great importance due to the tomb of Ferdowsi, a great Persian poet of old Iran. Ferdowsi is known and praised all over the world. Shahname of Ferdowsi has been translated to many languages.
Natural resources of Mashhad
Forest Park of Vakil Abad is amongst resorts and old summer centers located 8 km southwest of Mashhad with an area of more than seventy acres with soaring trees of Sycamore and pine and natural terrains. Water is supplied through a subterranean walkway and very beautiful river runs through its surface.
Shandiz is one of the summer center areas of Mashhad which provide this area with unique landscape including many fountains, gardens, greenery, and a river in 20 km far from west of Mashhad in Torghabeh region. This area is one of the major regions of local handicrafts and products such as skin and leather clothing, wooden objects and woven local products. Shandiz also has many restaurants, traditional tea houses and various recreational centers.
Kohsangi cultural and recreational complex
Kohsangi is the most famous recreational center of Mashhad. The water coming from Gonaba aqueducts arrives to a large pond of Kohsangi and irrigates flowers and trees of Kohsangi and adds to its beauty. A special container is made from the stone of this Mountain which is an indicator of Mashhad handicraft.
Torghabeh is another recreational center of Mashad which is limited to Binaloud Mountain in the west and TakhtRostam Mountain in the North. The existence of many springs and trees has turned it to a scenic and recreational spots. This area has a cool and pleasant weather in summer.
- Amusement Park of Mellat and a Ferris wheel with diameter of 80 mm which is the biggest in the Middle East and third largest Ferris wheel in the world (after the Tokyo and London Ferris wheel).
-The land of the blue waves, which is the largest indoor water park in Asia.
Mashhad has long been origin of thought of great men. Among them are Hakim Abolghasem Ferdowsi, Mohammad Kazem Akhound Khorasani, Ferdowsi, Ahmad Daghighi, Sheikh Tabrasi, Mohammad TaghiMalek al shoara Bahar, Sanei Mashhadi, Imam Mohammad Ghazali, Khajeh Nasir Tousi.
Historical and cultural buildings and monuments of Mashhad
The shrine of Imam Reza (a.s.)
Imam Reza (a.s.) shrine includes a historical and valuable complex in the heart of the Holy City of Mashhad, and aside from the fact that it is the largest focus of pilgrimage and attracts over twelve million pilgrims and travelers each year, it is the most rich collection in terms of historical and architectural values. During the last one thousand and two hundred years, new structures have been continuously added to this collection and turned it to a unique treasure of Iranian-Islamic architecture.
The mausoleum of Hakim Abolghasem Ferdosi
According to narratives, “Mansour bin Hasan» known as Ferdowsi was born in Paj in 940. He was among noblemen of Tous. He came into contact with Soltan Mahmoud when he was sixty five but this relationship did not last for long. Intimately he died in 1025 ad after composing of poems of Shahnameh. His current tomb was constructed after a series of architectural developments with the surface area of 945 sq. m and the museum of Tous is also located in the area of his mausoleum. In this museum object of combat, images of Shahnameh and types of the Shahnameh are kept.
The tomb of Amir Ghiyathoddin Malkshah (mosque of 72 body)
This great historical monument which is located in a market dates back to the fifteenth century and consists of a four arc dome, two minarets and one balcony is Ivan.Current structure was the “the tomb of Amir Ghiyathoddin» that had built by himself between 1404 and 1409 and became a mosque afterwards.
Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar
Nader Shah Afshar, was the first King of the dynasty of Afsharian who rescued Iran from afgan though his perseverance and courage. He finally was killed in 1747 ad by his Commander due to irascibility he suffered from. He was planning a tomb like Taj Mahal during his life but could not finish it. Current structure was finished in 1962. It consists of a tomb monument, Museum Hall, reception hall, balconies, corridors, beautiful water gardens and stones.A bronze statue of him on horseback, with the designation of Master Abolhassan Sedighi, Iranian contemporary artist who made its casting in Italy is now attached to the Tomb.
Tower of Akhngan
This building is located at 22 km north of Mashhad and in a rural area with the same name. Architecture of tower of Akhnganis the octagonal tomb dates back to fifteenth century and the time of Teymourian. This tower has a height of fourteen meter and eight half column surrounded the tower. On the tope there is a conical dome which is covered with veil structures. It has one door and two windows and without any visual art inside. In the outside, however there are colorful tiles. Local people believe this is the tomb of Gohar Taj one of the relatives of Gohar Shad, wife of Soltan Shahrokh.
The tomb of KhajehRabih
This monument is situated in the middle of a large and pleasant garden and dates back to Safavid era. “Rabihibnkhsim” was one of the prophet’s (PBUH) companion and governor of Qazvin at the beginning of Caliphate of Ali (a.s). He died about 1282-1284. This monument was constructed at the request of Sheikh Bahai, great Iranian poet and mystic and with the order of Shah Abbas Safavie.
This structure contains an octagonal monument with four large balconies in the center of main quad sides and four balconies in the corner of building. There are two epigraphs from Ali Reza Abbasi with date inscription of 1617 and 1621.
Traditional arts and crafts
Various handicraft are made in Mashhad such as handmade carpets, kilim, colorful fabrics, stone working and stone embossing, stone containers, turquois working, Onyx and jewelry making, masonry and ornament for women, Silk weaving, pottery, leather and ceramic painting, milling on glass, enamels, wood engraving, lattice -Working on wood, embroider work.
Football in Mashhad
Sports have long been in the focus of attention in this county, hence in the early 1970’s, the Aboomoslem football team was established. Aria Mashhad team represented Khorasan province in 1971, but it could not defeat Sepahan Isfahan in the two last game in qualifiers and was unable to attend Takht Jamshid League. After this failure, football fans considered establishing of a new team and they had no choice but to merge two teams of Aria and Aboomoslem and the result was the powerful team of Aboomoslem. Aboomoslem found its way to Takht Jamshid league and since then it has been among the best teams in the premier league. There are increasing numbers of supporters and today many people of Khorasan are the fans of this team.
Hotel Darvish of Mashhad
Hotel Darvish is the first royal five star hotel in 22 stories located in the most elevated residential centers in the east of country in the city of Mashhad. This is the first intelligent hotel equipped with BMS system where best modern method of design and up to date technology has been used for the utmost welfare of its guests. This hotel has many different rooms adapted to various styles and tastes including single, double, twin, suite rooms and special imperial, queen, spa, and penthouse residential units. It is the first double hotel designed based on Iranian ancient, Islamic, Egypt, China, India, Arab and Roman, architecture with double presidential.
The existence of pool complex and spa with specialized services, serving of breakfast as free buffet with as many as 100 various types of cold and warm foods, serving of the most delicious Iranian food in Atrium restaurant with glass ceiling and Spider pond in a life-giving atmosphere to experience fishing enjoy together with elysian feeling take you to the heart of nature. Other facilities include a roofed garden restaurant with more than 800 m closed and open areas as roofed garden with beautiful design. A multi-purpose saloon located in the highest story of the hotel with a luxury and modern design and a wonderful scenery of the city of Mashhad together with up to date and modern multimedia and IT facilities and potentials for holding meetings and gathering as well as numerous supporting saloons are among noticeable features of this complex. Luxury meeting room of Darvish hotel is equipped with virtual conference room and there are separate rooms from hotel complex for non-resident guests and international conferences.
Pars hotel of Mashhad
Pars hotel of Mashhad is located in an area of 5 acres in the west of the city of Mashhad and in Vakil Abad neighborhood. Residential units in Pars hotel of Mashhad are divided in two west and east residential blocks and among them are office and conference halls, restaurants, shopping centers, etc. Both the Eastern and Western blocks havethe same design in 5 stories each with three wings totally 6royal suites, 183 luxury suites, 16 double luxury rooms and 22 normal rooms. The central building of the Pars hotel of Mashhad is the link between two east and west blocks, in four stories, with roofed parking, billiard Hall, and shopping center and on the ground floor there are reception lobby, Lotus restaurant, Pegah coffee shop, bank, party room, indoor swimming pool, coffee net and on the first floor there are Conference halls, Auditorium, multi-purpose hall, and on the second floor there are also the office sections of the hotel. Pars hotel of Mashhad have 6 royal suites with unique properties, 183 luxury suites with all amenities and 16 luxury double rooms and 22 double rooms. In this complex all guests are free to use swimming pool, sauna and steam sauna and Jacuzzi, breakfast buffet wireless internet in public areas and rooms. PARS hotel restaurants including Lotus restaurant, Pegah coffee shop, lobby café, room service, Swan traditional restaurant are all offering various kinds of Iranian and international cuisine in the different atmosphere and with a very good and appropriate facilities.
Conference and celebration halls of Pars hotel of Mashhad with special and unique design and facilities are capable to accommodate about 80 people as well as holding of specialized exhibitions with a roofed space about 2.000 meters including Amphitheater with a capacity of 300, a multi-purpose hall with an area of approximately 400 meters (16 * 25) with capability to be used as conference (U shape) with a capacity of 125 persons, a conference room with a capacity of 25 people and halls related to parties including Shaghayegh with a accommodation capacity of 450 people , Firouzeh hall, glass pavilions in an area of about 400 square meters and a summer Amphitheater with a capacity of 150 people. Sports complex featuring indoor swimming pool equipped with hot and cold water, spasaloon, a very well equipped gym facilities, a squash Hall, a dartroom, a billiard room, and a tennis court. The artificial lake is full of fish, birds, such as white swans and geese, rafting, fishing and green space with colorful flowers has provided a beautiful and quiet environment for guest.
Shahid Hasheminejad International Airport
Shahid Hasheminejad International Airport (SHIA) is the country’s second busiest airport after Mehrabad International Airport of Tehran and is even busier than Imam Khomeini International Airport which is situated in an area of approximately 540 hectares in South East of Mashhad with two parallel runways and landing capacity of all type of aircrafts.There are more than 10 local as well as 7 international Airlines flying to SHIA. The airport’s annual capacity is about 3,500,000 local passengers and 730,000 foreign passengers except its 200,000 pilgrimages per annum. In addition there are too many flights from Mashhad International Airport to more than 26 domestic airports with its daily flights varying from 70 to 120. SHIA was launched in 1951 and was given a new runway in 1967. In addition its new parking lot, control tower as well as other airport buildings and facilities were constructed in 1978. Following the Islamic Revolution, a new era was begun in Mashhad airport and new parts were added to SHIA.